AI시대의 영성적 가르침에 관한 연구 : “관상적 가르침”을 중심으로*
본고는 객관주의적 지식이 편만한 AI 시대에, 인간의 내면을 형성하는 영성적 가르침의 필요성과 가능성을 “관상적 가르침(contemplative pedagogy)”을 중심으로 탐구한 논문이다. 이를 위하여 본 고는 먼저 AI의 객관적 인식론의 특성과 AI 시대 학교교육의 방향을 고찰하고, AI 시대의 시대적 요청으로서의 영성 및 영성적 가르침의 필요성과 성격을 탐구하였으며, 이를 실제적으로 실천하고 있는 관상적 가르침을 통해서 일반학교 에서의 영성적 가르침의 실현 가능성을 탐색하였다. 연구 결과 본고는 영성적 가르침이 종교학이나 신학과 같은 특정 영역만의 전유물이 아니라, 3인칭의 지식이 편만한 오늘과 같은 시대에 모든 학교와 교육의 현장에서 구현되어야 할 가르침이라고 하는 것과, “관상적 가르침”이야말로 대표적 영성적 가르침의 하나라고 하는 것을 발견하였다. 더 나아가 본고는 추후적으로 관상적 가르침 외에도 다양한 영성적 가르침의 모델들이 개발되고 실천될 필요성이 있다는 것 또한 발견하였다.주제어 : AI 인식론, 객관주의, 영성, 영성적 가르침, 관상적 가르침
A Study on Spiritual Teaching in the Age of AI : Focused on “Contemplative Pedagogy”
Kum Hee Yang
Professor, Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary
This paper is a thesis that explored the necessity and possibility of spiritual teaching that forms the inner side of human beings in the age of AI where objective knowledge is prevalent, focusing on “contemplative pedagogy”. For this it first examined the characteristics of objective epistemology of AI and the direction of school education in the AI and explored the necessity and character of spirituality and spiritual teaching as a request for the AI era, and also explores the possibility of realization of spiritual teaching in general school setting through contemplative pedagogy, which actually puts this into practice. As a result of the study, it found that spiritual teaching is not exclusive to a specific area such as religious studies or theology, but is a teaching that should be embodied in all schools and educational fields in today's era where third person knowledge is widespread. It also found that in addition to contemplative teaching, various spiritual teaching models need to be developed and put into practice for this purpose.
Keywords: Epistemology of AI, Objectivism, Spirituality, Spiritual Teaching, Contemplative Pedagogy
커리큘럼 논문 분석 및 전망 : 기독교교육논총을 중심으로
이 논문의 목적은 한국기독교교육학회 창립 60주년을 맞이하면서 2021년 2월 28일까지 한국기독교교육학회의 학회지인 기독교교육논총에 게재된 커리큘럼 또는 교육과정 32편의 논문들을 대상으로 역사적 관점에서 회고하고 나가야 할 방향을 전망해 보기 위해서이다. 시기 구분은 여명기(1996-2010), 성장기(2011-2015), 성숙기(2016-2020) 등이며, 각 시기 마다 관련 논문을 교육과정 이론, 교육대상, 교육현장 등으로 분류하여 언급하고 있다. 관련 논문의 분야들을 정리해보면 기독교교육과정 이론은 7편, 기독교교육대상은 5편, 기독교교육현장은 20편 등이다. 이 중에서 교육과정 이론은 재개념화에 대한 논문이 5편을 차지할 정도로 하나의 교육과정 이론 연구에 대한 경향으로 나타나고 있다. 이는 신학을 포함한 간학문으로서 기독교교육의 특성과도 관련되어 재개념화는 기독교교육과정의 연구 경향으로 지속할 것으로 보인다. 재개념화 이론 이외에 전통주의 이론과 개념-경험주의 이론에 대한 교육과정은 각각 1편씩이다. 교육대상에서는 여성(2), 평신도, 유아, 부모 등으로 어느 대상을 주로 하는 경향으로는 나타나지 않고 있다. 교육현장에서는 가정에 대한 논문 1편, 교회에 대한 논문 4편, 학교에 대한 논문 15편 등이다. 학교 교육과정에는 신학 교육과정이 포함되어 있기도 하는 관계로 발표된 논문이 많으며 하나의 경향을 보이고 있다. 발표된 논문을 백분율로 환산해 보면 교육과정 이론 21.88%, 교육대상 15.63%, 교육현장 62.5% 등으로 향후 기독교교육과정에 대한 연구가 균형 있게 이루어져 기독교교육과정이 분야별로 다양하게 향상되어야 할 것이다.
Curriculum Article's Analysis and Prospection: Focus on Journal of Christian Education in Korea
Professor, Young Nam Theological University and Seminary
This article is to an curriculum area's academic retrospection and hoping future of KSCRE through analyzing of the article in Journal of Christian Education. The methodology for analyzing the Journal of Christian Education is the historical perspectives which are divided into the period of beginning(1996-2010), the period of growth(2011-2015), the period of maturity(2016-2020). Three periods are categorized into curriculum theory, educational learner, educational context. The number of articles in three periods are eight article(25.8%), thirteen article(41.93%), ten article(32.26%). And seven article in curriculum theory, five article in educational learner, nineteen article in education context. Articles of curriculum theory have a tendency into the reconceptualization as the five articles of seven articles. This tendency will maintains in the future of the Christian curriculum by the nature of Christian education as interdisciplinary including theology. Educational learners in the study of Christian curriculum are female, laity, infant, parent which have not any tendency but variety of educational learners. Educational contexts have one article to the home, four articles to the church, fourteen article to the schools including theological schools. For the development of christian curriculum the christian curriculum is studied in balance of educational contexts.
Keywords : Christian curriculum, Historical perspective, Curriculum theory, Educational learner, Educational context
신학대학교에서 성품 교육을 위한 실천적 코스 모델 개발
Developing a Practical Course Model for the Personality Education in a Theological University
Lecturer, Hansei University
This study is purposed to prepare students in theological universities so that they contribute to their faith community as well as the broader social community in future through developing a practical course model for education of character formation. Facing the challenge of a high-tech revolution being progressed globally in this period, theological seminaries as the Christian-affiliated institute of higher education see the necessity to nurture their learners’ competency of holistic personality comprehending cognitive, affective, behavioral, and more spiritual maturity as well as specialty in each subject matter. The holistic character capability of seminarians is closely related not only to their own self-realization, but also social community’s well-being. This research had the following content and results. Chapter 1 brought up a subject to educational needs of the holistic character formation in the theological seminaries to meet the rapidly changing times. Chapter 2 considered the importance of character formation in the curriculum of the universities and theological seminaries in the times of high-tech revolution through the literature reviews related to. Chapter 3 clarified the elements of character education to be placed emphasis on theological seminaries and established the way of course planning. Chapter 4, using a course of Christian social education for illustration, described in order the whole process of course planning comprehending the need of planning, description of course concept, establishment and definition of learning outcomes, organization of learning experience(course content), teaching-learning activities, evaluation of learning outcome, and course improvement, which was visualized with the chart of the process of course design. Also, it provided a practical illustration of the conceptual map, an outline of content and an organization of units, and scope-sequence chart. Finally, chapter 5 gave an syllabus example in an integrative and digestive form as the course plan to be distributed to the students, which is the final result produced through the whole process of course planning. This research is intended not to present a overall curriculum planning of the university-level in the theological seminaries, but to develop a course-level curriculum focused on the formation of character. The author hope that this study would be used as a guideline in developing a course model to nurture the capability of the learners’ holistic character.
Keywords : Theological university, Education of holistic personality, Course model, Conceptual map, Intended learning outcomes, Scope and sequence, Syllabus
포스트 코로나 시대의 소비문화에 대한 기독교교육의 성찰 : 드라마 「펜트하우스」를 중심으로
이 연구는 기독교교육의 성찰을 위해 보드리야르(J. Baudrillard)의 중요개념인 시뮬라시옹(Simulation)과 시뮬라크르(Simulacra) 등을 중심으로 포스트 코로나 시대의 한 단면을 분석할 수 있는 드라마 「펜트하우스」의 소비이데올로기, 이미지의 욕망 및 폭력 등에 관해 검토할 것이다. 보드리야르는 시뮬라시옹 개념이 대중매체의 발전에서 생겨났다고 보고, 대중매체는 결국 실재를 사라지게 하는 ‘시뮬라시옹의 출현’ 혹은 ‘시뮬라시옹의 과정’이라고 설명한다. 보드리야르는 시뮬라시옹 과정이 대중매체가 지배하는 소비사회의 다양한 영역에서 진행되고 있다는 것을 지적한다. 시뮬라시옹은 이미지에 의해 실재보다 더 실재적인 초과실재를 산출하는 과정이며, 시뮬라크르는 시뮬라시옹의 결과이다. 포스트 코로나 시대의 기독교교육은 비판이론을 통한 비판적 성찰의 준거 기준이 합의 되지 않았다는 부정적 측면으로 인해 거부하지 말고 비판이론의 긍정적 입장을 고려해야 한다. 다시 말해서 대중매체가 주도하는 지배이데올로기와 소비이데올로기의 속성을 봐야한다. 특히 광고나 드라마 영화에서 보여주는 메시지는 시뮬라크르만 남아 실제보다 더 실제 같은 허상임을 보는 관점을 지녀야 한다. 미디어는 말을 하되 상대방의 응답이 이루어질 수 없게 만드는 미디어의 권력을 의미한다. 그것의 대표적인 예표가 텔레비전이며, 연구자가 드라마 「펜트하우스」를 분석하는 이유이기도 하다. 보드리야르는 맥루한(M. McLuhan)의 “미디어가 메시지다”(The medium is the message)라는 명제는 예상치 못하게 모든 내용물과 메시지가 미디어 속으로 사라져 버린 뒤에, 미디어 자신도 증발해 버린다고 지적한다. 그러나 기독교교육은 “하나님 말씀이 메시지”(The word of God is message) 임을 가르치고, 배우고, 나누고, 전수하는 것이다. 또한 그 메시지는 내파되거나 함열 되는 것이 아니라 영원한 진리로 계속 살아있는 메시지이다. 위기와 불안의 포스트 코로나 시대의 기독교교육은 사회 현상과 관련하여 대중/소비자/교인 개체들을 무저항적이고 무비판적으로 만드는 소비지상주의의 소비문화에 관해 끊임없는 성찰의 장(場)을 마련하고, 일련의 ‘전망대’의 역할을 감당해야 할 것이다.
주제어 : 보드리야르, 시뮬라시옹, 시뮬라크르, 소비이데올로기, 포스트 코로나 시대, 펜트하우스
A Reflection on the Consumer Culture in the Post- COVID 19 Era from the Lens of Christian Education: Learning from the Drama, Penthouse
Assistant Professor, Seoul Theological University
As a contemporary exponent of Bauderillard’s Simulation and Simulacra, this paper aims to reflect on the ‘consumer culture’ criticized by Baudrillard from the lens of Christian Education in reading the Drama, Penthouse related to the notions of the consumption-ideology, the desire and violence of image in the post-Covid 19 era. As Baudrillard begins to realize that the concept of simulation rooted from mass media in the modern society, he explains mass media as the emerging of Simulation or the process of Simulation will lead to the impulsion of reality, which ends up with vanishing the original reality. Baudrillard is explaining in his argument that the process of Simulation proceeds among various areas of the contemporary society being manipulated by mass media. While Simulation is the process of producing the hyper- reality characterized by the excess of images that seems more real than the original reality, Simulation brought about Simulacra as excess reality or consequently exploding reality. Christian educators in the post-Covid 19 must know how to deal with critical theory by considering positive ways of avoiding questioning of how to articulate what the norm of universal consensus is in the specific situation. In other words, it should be noted that the nature of the ruling ideology and the ideology of consumption has been influenced or manipulated by mass media. Christian educators especially have to help young people in seeing the messages from the images of the screens, television, soap-opera, and commercial advertising making reality as Simulacre which is more real than the original reality. When the medium becomes the message, the power of medium makes the consumer not reach communication with it. This is the main reason in the controversy about the images on television drama, Penthouse and the impact of images on people’s mind. As an exponent of McLuhan’s belief that “the medium is the message”, Baudrillard argues although the message and a subject of Simulacra(excessive reality) is unexpectedly disappearing, the medium itself is vanished through the silence of image. However, the task of Christian education has to fuel how we teach, learn, share and pass on the Word of God as the Message. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the Message of God cannot be vanished or burst with the impulsion of it, but exists forever. With Baudrillard’s ideas of Simulation and Simulacra in mind, the work of Christian education as an observation platform can better engage the reflection on a consumer society of consumerism that makes Church community and a consumer irresistible against the Fake world.
Keywords : Baudrillard, Simulation, Simulacra, Consumption-ideology, The post-Covid 19 era, Penthouse
기독 탈북청소년의 한국사회 적응에 관한 내러티브 연구
Narrative Study on the Adaptation of Christian North Korean Adolescents to Korean Society
Counselor, Korea Ministry National of Defense
Visiting Professor, Kosin University
The purpose of this study is to clarify the contribution of Christian faith in the process of establishing self-identity and stably settling in the process of North Korean youth settling in Korean society. The research method used narrative. Participants in the study were nine late youth who belonged to the church, aged 17 to 24 years old, who had been in Korea for more than one year. Through this study, themes were derived from four categories. First, a retrospective narrative of the North Korean defection motive was dealt with. Second, it deals with the psychological adaptation process and unsolved tasks. Third, I dealt with the thoughts of the family, the discourse and vision for unification, which they dream of in Korean society as Christian believers. Fourth, it is about the Christian faith, and it is said that the Christian faith gives North Korean refugee youth the power to reflect on their lives, and to see the essence of life through the values of interest in others, history, society, and the kingdom of God. These results are based on the encounters with church and alternative school leaders and various curriculums that North Korean refugee youth experience and talk about. In the sense that it seeks and suggests a new direction in the era of preparation for unification, this article can be said to be of great value for Christian education.
Keywords : North Korean refugee youth, Narrative research, Self-identity, Christian faith, Youth unification education
에큐메니칼 선교에 기초한 선교교육의 방향에 관한 연구
A Study on the Direction of Mission Education Based on Ecumenical Mission
Eun Joo Lee
Adjunct Professor, Hanshin University
Due to COVID-19, the entire world is facing the unprecedented phenomenon. Amid the threat of the virus, the global community is struggling for life. In such circumstances, churches in Korea have been criticised as selfish groups threatening the community by spreading the virus. With such criticism, they are disregarded by Korean society because their immorality and exclusive attitude towards other religions and cultures were also mentioned in public. There are many reasons for Korean churches to lose trust from people. One of the reasons for that is the quantitative growth of church and expansion of the power of church, which is a direction that has been practised so far as a missionary goal. The zeal for spreading gospel has undermined the trust of church and become a deteriorating factor for mission, which is irony. In such problematic situations, the change of paradigm is required for new mission. The passion for evangelisation should not only focus on the quantitative growth of church; it should change its direction for serving the world in lieu with the plan of God for the activity of redemption on this land. A hint of such mission can be found in ecumenical mission. Ecumenical mission is a new paradigm which was discussed in ecumenical movement led mainly by WCC, and its aim is to participate in activities of redemption of God for life in this world. Christian education has been a tool for the expansion of Christian power in the context of traditional mission. Reflecting on the role of Christian education as such, the change of direction as practical movement for the kingdom of God was tried in ecumenical movement: the beginning of the discussion of Christian education based on ecumenical mission. Due to exclusivity, aggressive mission, and the excessive attention to the system of ecclesiastical authority rather than life, Korean churches, which have lost trust in this society, should recover themselves as the model of the kingdom of God, and the establishment of mission education based on ecumenical mission is required for them to become a community towards life. Furthermore, this is an urgent task for Korean churches to implement such mission education in a church community.
Keywords: Mission, Ecumenical movement, Ecumenical mission, WCC, Missionary education
한국교회 청년들의 교회 이동 및 신앙생활 포기 요인 분석
본 연구에서는 청년들의 교회 이동과 신앙생활 포기 의향에 대한 인식을 중심으로 해당 의향과 인식에 영향을 주는 요인을 분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 청년 사역을 위한 정책적 시사점을 제공해주고자 하였다. 본 연구에서 활용한 데이터는 2021년 Align Research Center for Christianity(ARCC)의 청년실태조사 데이터이며, 전국단위의 1,017명(남성, 409명, 여성 608명),이 최종 분석대상으로 활용되었다. 본 연구의 분석방법은 SPSS 23.0 프로그램을 활용하여 빈도분석 및 기술통계, 신뢰도 분석, 독립표본 t검증, 일원분산분석, 회귀분석이 적용되었다. 한국교회 내 청년들의 교회 이동과 신앙생활 포기 의향에 대한 인식을 분석한 결과 향후 교회 이동과 신앙생활 포기 인식에 대한 기초 통계를 확인 할 수 있었으며, 주요 항목에 대한 집단별(의향 수준별) 인식의 차이, 교회 이동 및 신앙생활 포기에 대한 영향 요인을 도출할 수 있었다.
주제어: 한국교회, 청년, 딜레마, 신앙생활, 교회 이동, 목회자
Analysis of Factors of Korean Church Youth’s Church Movement and Giving Up on Christian Faith
Young Ju, Ham
Associate Professor, Chongshin University
Hyun Chul, Lee
Associate Professor, Kosin University
The purpose of this study is to provide Christian educational implications for young adult ministry by analyzing the reasons why young people move to church and give up their faith. In this study, data from ARRC research in 2021 were used, and 1017 youths(male: 409, female:608) nationwide were used as analysis targets. Through this study, the reasons for the intention of young people to move to church and give up their religious life were identified. Through this study, it was investigated that young people in Korean churches left the church or gave up their faith due to the factor of pastor, the factor of youth community, the factor of personal faith, the factor of church culture, and the factor of compulsory devotion. Based on these results, five important Christian educational implications for youth ministry were suggested.
Keywords: Korean Church, Young adult, Dilemma, Faith life, Church move, Pastor
코로나 시대 기독 노인의 신앙생활을 위한 교육목회 방안 연구
코로나19는 한국 교회의 목회 방식에 큰 전환을 일으켰다. 대면 목회와 함께 인터넷과 미디어 기기를 활용한 비대면 목회의 장이 본격적으로 열리게 된 것이다. 물론 그동안 비대면 목회가 없었던 것은 아니나 교회목회 가운데 비중이 현저히 낮았던 것이 사실이다. 이러한 대면과 비대면 목회가 병행되는 환경 속에 디지털 취약 계층으로 분류된 노인은 이와 같은 변화에 적절하게 적응하고 있는지, 그들의 신앙생활에는 어려움이 없는지 살펴볼 필요가 있다. 이에 본 연구는 한국 교회와 관련된 코로나19 현황과 그 영향을 정리하고, 기독 노인을 위한 교회 프로그램 현황에 대해 살펴보며, 기독 노인의 삶에 신앙생활이 얼마나 중요한 영향을 주는지에 대해 살펴보고, 이에 마리아 해리스 교육목회 이론을 적용하여 기독 노인의 신앙생활을 위한 교육목회 방안을 제안하고자 하였다. 이는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 코이노니아 측면에서 모든 사람을 소외되지 않게 환대하며 포용하기 위해 기독 노인이 가지고 있는 유산, 신념, 가치관, 삶의 방식 등을 교회 안과 밖의 사람들과 나눌 수 있도록 교육할 것을 제안하였다. 둘째, 레이투르기아 측면에서 영성 수행을 위해 미디어를 활용한 공동 기도의 내용을 제공하는 등을 통해 노인의 기도 생활을 개인적인 영역에서 공적인 영역으로 확대하여 기도와 정의를 실천하는 삶이 되도록 하는 교육목회를 제안하였다. 셋째, 디다케 측면에서 노인들이 변화하는 기술에 익숙하게 반응하도록 교육하는 것이 전제되어야 하며, 이에 교회는 가르침이 일어나는 환경을 온라인상으로까지 확대하며, 전통과 새로운 형태들의 교육 내용을 광범위하게 다루어야 함을 제안하였다. 넷째, 케리그마 측면에서 코로나로 인해 개인적으로나 사회적으로 어려움을 겪게 된 기독 노인들이 다시 말씀을 사모하고 경청하며, 말씀을 통해 코로나 위기를 극복할 수 있는 힘을 얻고, 이것이 교제, 기도, 가르침, 그리고 봉사의 커리큘럼으로 녹아들어 실천할 수 있게 해야 함을 제안하였다. 다섯째, 노인 의식을 전환하여 스스로가 섬김의 객체가 아닌 섬김의 주체가 되며, 디지털 격차 해소를 위한 디지털 리터러시 교육을 통해 섬김과 봉사의 장을 확대해야 함을 제안하였다.
주제어: 코로나19, 디지털 소외자, 기독 노인, 신앙생활, 마리아 해리스, 교육목회
Assistant Professor, Mokwon University
Associate Professor, Sungkyul University
Corona 19 brought about a major shift in the Korean church's pastoral style. Contact and non-contact ministry styles using the Internet and media devices are being held together. The elderly, who have been classified as digital vulnerable, need to see whether they are properly adapting to these changes and they have any difficulties in their religious lives. This study is to organize the current status of Corona 19 related to Korean churches, look at the current state of church programs for Christian elderly people, look at how important the religious life is to their lives, and to suggest educational pastoral methods for their religious lives based on the theory of Maria Harris’ educational ministry. First, in terms of Koinonia, it was suggested that the heritage, beliefs, values and ways of life held by the Christian elderly be shared with people inside and outside the church in order to entertain and embrace everyone without alienation. Second, from the perspective of Leiturgia, educational ministry was proposed to expand prayer life from a personal area to a public area to become a life of practicing prayer and justice by providing public prayer content with media that can be used by the elderly to perform spirituality. Third, it was suggested that in terms of Didache, it should be required that the elderly should be educated to be familiar with the changing technologies, that teaching environment should be extended from church to online, and that the educational content of tradition and new forms should be dealt with extensively. Fourth, from the perspective of Kerigma, Christian elderly people who have suffered in various life environments, both personally and socially, should listen to the words again and gain the power to overcome the corona crisis through the God’s words, so that they can be melted into the curriculum of koinonia, leiturgia, didache, and diakonia. Fifth, it was suggested that senior citizens should switch their consciousness to become subjects of service, not objects of service, and that digital literacy education should be provided individually at eye level to narrow the digital gap for Diakonia curriculum.
Keywords: Corona 19, Digital isolator, Christian elders, Religious life, Maria Harris, Educational ministry
기독 청년들의 교회를 떠나고 싶은 이유에 관한 질적 연구
주제어: 기독 청년, 교회 이탈, 청년 사역, 청년 사역자, 가나안 교인, 가나안 청년
A Qualitative Study on the Reasons Why Christian Young Adults Want to Leave the Church
Seung Beom Shin
Associate Professor, Seoul Theological University
Jong Min Lee
Assistant Professor, Chongshin University
The purpose of this study is to explore the inner perceptions and dilemmas of young people about the church. To achieve the purpose of the study, this study sampled the research subjects, and conducted in-depth interviews and FGI. The sample in this study was 21 young adults who met the study criteria. Some of these people are not currently attending church or have thought of moving to another church. In this study, research was conducted based on the analysis procedure of Riessman (1993). Focusing on the procedures of ‘telling,’ ‘recording,’ and ‘analyzing,’ the experience and life situation of the study participants are to be grasped. Through this process, we analyzed the situation and context of why young people leave the church. It consisted of 5 areas and 15 sub-themes. Based on the research results, it was found that young adults need a church and are looking for a church. The church is a mystical space, but from an pedagogical point of view, the church is a space for teaching and learning faith. As experts in theology and education, the minister must create a space so that the church can become a space of transcendence, a space of intimacy, a space of understanding, a space of change, a space of service, and a space of reflection.
Keywords: Christian young adult, Exit from the Church, Young adult ministry, Young adult minster, Competency, Qualitative research
포스트 코로나 시대 신앙교육을 위한 지능형학습플랫폼 모형 구성 연구
A Study on the Construction of Intelligent Learning Platform Model for Faith Education in the Post Corona Era
Eun Chul Lee
Assistant Professor, Baekseok University
The purpose of this study is to develop an intelligent learning platform model for faith education in preparation for the post-corona era. This study reviewed artificial intelligence algorithms, research on learning platform development, and prior research related to faith education. The draft of the intelligent learning platform design model was developed by synthesizing previous studies. The developed draft model was validated by a Delphi survey targeting 5 experts. The content validity of the developed draft model was all 1. This is the validation of the draft model. Three revised opinions of experts were presented on the model. And the model was revised to reflect the opinions of experts. The modified final model consisted of three areas: learning materials, learning activities, learning data, and artificial intelligence. Each area is composed of 9 elements of curriculum, learning content additional learning resources, learner type, learning behavior, evaluation behavior, learner characteristic data, learning activity data, artificial intelligence data, and learning analysis. Each component has 29 sub-elements. In addition, 14 learning floors were formed. The biggest implication of this study is the first development of a basic model of an intelligent learning platform for faith education.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Learning platform, Intelligent learning platform, Faith education, Intelligent learning platform for faith education
에듀테크를 활용한 상호작용적 비대면 실시간 수업 설계 및 개발 연구 : 기독교교육과 수업 사례를 중심으로
A Study on the Design and Development of Interactive Non-Face-to-Face Real-Time Classes using EduTech: A Case Study of Christian Education Class
Education Director, Yulim Presbyterian Church
This study is a case study in which the interactive non-face-to-face classes using Edutech were applied to the Department of Christian Education. The subjects were 20 students from the Christian education department of A University located in the metropolitan area. The course was 'Instructional Methods and Educational Technology' in the first semester of 2020. In theory, I studied non-face-to-face classes and interaction, and edutech and interaction. Afterward, it designed and developed interactive non-face-to-face classes using edutech. The interactive non-face-to-face classes using edutech were developed as a process of applying Flipped-PBL based interactive edutech. In addition, Edutech was selected for active interaction according to the Flipped-PBL process to be carried out in a non-face-to-face situation. In particular, in the process of developing the problem of PBL, it was built around the situation of the church. As a result of applying the class, first, learners showed high satisfaction and interest in the class. Second, positive transference appeared in the space of learning and the space of living. Third, interactive non-face-to-face classes using Edutech have generated active interaction. In particular, interactive edutech and learning methods have become the main factors enabling active interaction. Through this, learners have improved learning efficiency, immersion, and satisfaction. Also, as an alternative to face-to-face classes, I was able to experience online classes. In other words, the satisfaction and interest of learning, and the transference of learning space, were also possible through active interactions generated through learning methods using interactive Edutech used in class. Furthermore, disabilities in the online communication(Internet) environment and learners' unfamiliarity with the online environment have been found as factors that hinder learning satisfaction and interaction. During learning, obstacles to the online communication environment hinder the utilization of interactive Edutech, preventing active interactions from occurring. This results in diminishing satisfaction and interest in learning. Therefore, we find that designing interactive non-face-to-face classes using Edutech requires sufficient learner learning and checking of the online communication(Internet) environment in advance for Edutech and learning methods. In response, this study confirmed the possibility by applying interactive non-face-to-face classes using Edutech to Christian education classes as an alternative method of education that allows active interaction and consistent transference of learning and life. Although it is a case study with limited duration and limitations of the number of people, I would like to present the possibility as an alternative Christian education method of an era where the direction of online classes should be presented as an alternative to a face-to-face class.
Keywords: Edutech, Interaction, Flipped-PBL, Non-face-to-face real-time classes, Online classes
기독교 대학의 인성 함양 프로그램 성찰저널 분석 연구 : K대학교의 밀알훈련 사례를 중심으로
A Study on the Analysis of Reflective Journal of the Character Development Program of Christian University
Seong Ah Lee
Assistant Professor, Korean Bible University
The purpose of this study is to analyze the journal of reflection of students who participated in the character improvement education program. And it is a study that suggests ways to develop the program according to the results of analysis. Then, by collecting 208 reflective journals of students who participated in Milal training at K University, After the analysis was performed in the process of transcription, coding, and subject discovery, reliability was secured by calculating the Kappa coefficient for the analysis frame and analysis suitability. According to the results of the analysis of reflection journal. Through Milal training, the Milal spirit was understood as sacrificial service (sacrifice, devotion, lowering, serving, death, decay) and Milal (reproduction). We confirmed that It will have a life attitude related to the themes of labor (hardwork, work, patience, patience, perseverance). It can be said that through Milal training, self-reflection activities can be promoted, community character and collaboration skills can be cultivated, and the spirit of sacrificial service can be acquired. Through the results of this reflection journal analysis, it is necessary to further enhance the Milal training program, and it will be possible to provide implications to the character cultivation programs of other universities.
Keywords: university student character education, character increasing program, community character, christian community character
인간 영의 변형을 위한 기독교교육
Christian Education for Human Spirit Transformation
Ji Yeon Woo
Education Director, Onmuri Presbyterian Church
Humans are created as spiritual beings that can relate to God. However, when a human spirit refuses to transform through confronting God, it experiences a crisis. A spiritual crisis results from disconnecting with God, who is the ultimate foundation, but we humans try to overcome such absence through accomplishments and efforts. In this technological age, the ethics issues of AI (Artificial Intelligence), robots, and cloning are related to anthropology. The development of the mind, heart, and logic cannot suggest a basis for destruction and confusion as much as the development of the world. In fact, education focused on the human mind cannot be considered holistic. Mind, together with thought, will, and belief, plays a crucial role in making choices and leading a human life. So it is actively studied in other domains other than Christian education. However, although the human spirit takes care of some territory of humanity, unlike the mind, it can neither be partial nor fragmentary. Instead, it manages the transformation that influences the core of human life. Therefore, Christian education must clearly concentrate on the spirit rather than on other human elements, intentionally concerning spiritual transformation through encounters with God. In other words, Christian education is the passage connecting a human spirit to God's presence at work, which enables us to understand the human being as a whole. For this, we must put our efforts to increase the chances of encountering God through Christian education. While “Encounter” requires both parties’ interaction, “Transformation” stresses God as the main agent and His proactive nature. I also want to emphasize “worship” as the opportunity to communicate and experience God in our daily lives. By examining the preparation and the process of the spiritual transformation of humans, this paper would offer a theological foundation for continued transformation of the human spirit in the faith community, rather than personal experience or conviction.
Keywords: Human Spirit, Transformation, Artificial Intelligence, Mind, Human development, James Loder